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KEMAMPUAN Trichoderma DAN Penicillium DALAM MENGHAMBAT PERTUMBUHAN CENDAWAN PENYEBAB PENYAKIT BUSUK AKAR DURIAN (Phytophthora palmivora) SECARA IN VITRO

KEMAMPUAN Trichoderma DAN Penicillium DALAM MENGHAMBAT
PERTUMBUHAN CENDAWAN PENYEBAB PENYAKIT
BUSUK AKAR DURIAN (Phytophthora palmivora) SECARA IN VITRO

Sunarwati, D. dan R. Yoza
Balai Penelitian Tanaman Buah Tropika
 Jl. Raya Solok-Aripan Km 8 Solok Sumatera Barat 27301
 
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan antagonisme 3 agen hayati yaitu Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma virens dan Penicillium purpurescen dalam menghambat pertumbuhan cendawan Phytophthora palmivora penyebab penyakit busuk pangkal batang dan akar pada Durian. Uji kemampuan penghambatan pertumbuhan dilakukan secara kultur ganda (dual culture) dengan menumbuhkan masing-masing cendawan agen hayati dengan Phytophthora palmivora dalam cawan petri berisi media Potato Dextrosa Agar secara berhadapan dengan jarak 3 cm. Persentase hambatan, tipe interaksi dan mekanisme interaksi diamati pada 4 hari sesudah inokulasi. Tipe interaksi yang terjadi antara Phytophthora palmivora dan agen hayati menunjukan sifat antagonis, dimana agen hayati mampu menghambat pertumbuhan Phytophthora palmivora. Hasil pengamatan persentase hambatan menunjukkan bahwa Trichoderma harzianum dan Trichoderma virens memiliki daya hambat yang sangat baik yaitu 99% terhadap pertumbuhan Phytophthora palmivora dibandingkan Penicillium purpurescens sebesar 19,34%. Mekanisme antagonis Trichoderma harzianum dan Trichoderma virens terhadap Phytophthora palmivora adalah kompetisi, parasitisme dan lisis sedangkan mekanisme antagonis Penicillium purpurescens terhadap Phytophthora palmivora adalah antibiosis.
Kata kunci : Agen hayati Antagonis; Persentase hambatan; Phytophthora palmivora

ABSTRACT. Sunarwati, D. and R. Yoza. 2010. The ability of Trich oderm a and P en icillium to inhibit the growth rate of fungus caused Durio root rot (P h ytoph th ora palm ivora) In vitro. This study aims to determine the ability antagonism of three biological agents that are Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma virens and Penicillium purpurescens in inhibiting the growth of Phytophthora palmivora fungi causing the base stem rot and root rot disease on Durio. Test the ability inhibition of growth wise dual culture done by growing each fungus of biological agents with Phytophthora palmivora in petridish containing Potato dextrose agar media in dealing with a distance of 3 cm. Percentage of inhibiting, the type of interaction and the mechanism of interaction was observed at 4 days after inoculation. This type of interaction that occurs between Pytophthora palmivora and biological agents showed antagonistic properties, in which biological agents capable of inhibiting the growth of Phytophthora palmivora. Observations showed that the percentage of zone barriers Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma virens has a very good inhibition of 99% compared to the zone barriers Penicillium purpurescens of 19.34% to inhibition the growth of Phytophthora palmivora. Mechanism of antagonistic Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma virens against Phytophthora palmivora are competition, parasitism and lysis, whereas the antagonist mechanism Penicillium purpurescens against Phytophthora palmivora is antibiosis.
Keywords: Biological agents; Antagonism; percentage inhibiting;Phytophthora palmivora


Prosiding :
Seminar Nasional Program dan Strategi Pengembangan Buah Nusantara Solok,
Balitbu Tropika
Solok, 10 Nopember 2010

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