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Improvement of Commercial Mango Varieties Through Crosses

Arumanis 143 and Gedong Gincu are mango varieties to meet domestic and export markets. In addition to the two varieties superior varieties to meet the export market going forward are Ken Layung and Garifta. One of the Marif Garifta, one of which is the Red Garifta was released by the Tropics of Balitbu in 2009. This Garifta Mango by the Directorate General of Horticulture has been developed in eleven provinces in Indonesia. The problem that arises is that the commercial mangoes are not resistant to high rainfall so that if flowering and fruiting occur during the rainy season, many flowers and fruit fall out, therefore it is necessary to improve the character of these varieties. One way that can be done to improve the character is through crosses. The research aims to obtain progeny from commercial mango crossing with 3 varieties of mango that are tolerant of high rainfall. The study was conducted at KP. Cukurgondang, Pasuruan, East Java. The elders used were 4 commercial mango varieties, namely: (1) Arumanis 143, (2) Gedong Gincu, (3) Ken Layung, and (4) Red Garifta, and 3 mango varieties that are tolerant of high rainfall, namely: ( 5) Durih, (6) Bangalora, and (7) Malgova. The results showed that from the results of crossing obtained 19 progeny with the percentage of successful crossing of 0.21%.
This study aims to obtain progeny from commercial mango crossbreeding (Arumanis 143, Gedong Gincu, Ken Layung, and Red Garifta) with 3 varieties of mango that are tolerant of high rainfall.
The number of flowers crossed is not the same for each parent (Table 2). This happens because there are elders who do not flower at all even though the parent plant has been stimulated by ZPT or female elders to flower but the height of the tree is not reached so it is not possible to pass through crosses.
Number of finished fruit (1 week and 4 weeks old)
The number of fruit that became 1 week after crossing was still relatively high, namely 52.08%, 35.08%, 49.32%, and 51.16% in Arumanis 143 female elders, Gedong Gincu, Ken Layung and Garifta respectively Red, while in the reciprocal, namely female Durih 59.23% and Bangalora 55.40%. The high fruitet age of 1 week is due to the absence of rain during the crossing. At the age of 4 weeks after the crossing of the fruit which has fallen drastically to 3.21%, 3.90%, 4.07 and 1.27% for female elders Arumanis 143, Gedong Gincu, Ken Layung and Garifta Merah. This happens because at the age of 15 days after the crossing occurs endosperm degeneration so that the fruit will fall (Iyer and Schnell, 2009). Differences in the number of ovaries also occur between a combination of elders.
In crossing with Durih female parents, the highest percentage of ovaries both at 1 week and 4 weeks after crossing (59.23% and 8.46%) compared to other female parents. Gedong Gincu female elders produced the lowest possible ovaries at 1 week (35.08%) while at 4 weeks after crossing the Red Garifta female elders produced the lowest possible ovaries (1.27%). Differences in the results of this cross are suspected to be different incompatibilities between the crossed elders.

 

Left: Emaskulasi discard male and ugly flowers
Right: wrapping

Left: Disposing of stamens that are still left behind
Right: Crossing the male pollen (selected vareietas)

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Source: Proceedings of Non-Functional Functional Technical Tenu
         Yogyakarta 4-6 July 2018

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